The Pan Africanist Congress, or PAC, was a South African liberation movement founded in 1959 and is now a South African political party. Robert Sobukwe was elected as the movement’s first president. Due to the strict rules of the white-led government, the PAC was banned from April 1960 until 1990.
The Azanian People’s Organization, or AZAPO, is a South African political party. AZAPO was founded in 1978 from three black rights organizations that had been banned by the white-led government the year before.
The Inkatha Freedom Party, or IFP, is a political party in South Africa that was founded as a black cultural and political movement in KwaZulu Natal in 1975. When the ANC and PAC were banned in 1960 by the white-led government, the Inkatha Freedom Party became the only public black rights organization operating in South Africa.