The term Persian refers to the people and history of the country now known as Iran.

Persia was the name of the country before 1935, as well as an empire that stretched back to 4000 BCE. In the 600s, Muslims from what is now Saudi Arabia conquered Persia and the majority of Iranians converted to Islam. During the 1100s-1200s, Persia was considered a powerhouse of scientific advancement, including astronomy, chemistry, mathematics and medicine. The Persians gave the world many other advancements over their long history, such as the domestication of goats and chickens, the invention of wine, the first banking system and even the first system of taxation.